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Normal Values
References>Normal Values>1
Normal Aortic Valve
Aortic Annulus Size        1.8-2.3 cm
Mitral Annulus Size         3.0-3.5 cm
Aortic VTI                     18-25 cm
Mitral VTI                      10-13 cm
Normal Area                 2.5-4.5 cm2
Mild Stenosis                1.0-2.5 cm2
Moderate Stenosis        0.75-1.0 cm2
Severe Stenosis             < 0.75 cm2
Mitral Valve Aortic Valve Mean Gradient
Normal Area                 4.0-6.0 cm2
Mild Stenosis                1.5-2.5 cm2
Moderate Stenosis        1.5-1.5 cm2
Severe Stenosis             < 1.0 cm2
Normal Gradient           < 5 mmHg
Mild Stenosis                5-25 mmHg
Moderate Stenosis        25-50 mmHg
Severe Stenosis            >50 mmHg
Mitral Valve Mean Gradient Aortic Valve Peak Gradient
Normal Gradient           < 2 mmHg
Mild Stenosis                2-6 mmHg
Moderate Stenosis        6-12 mmHg
Severe Stenosis            >12 mmHg
Normal Gradient            mmHg
Mild Stenosis                 mmHg
Moderate Stenosis         mmHg
Severe Stenosis              mmHg
Aortic Regurgitation PHT Pulmonary Hypertension (Peak Pressure)
Mild AR                > 550 msec
Moderate AR        300-550 msec
Severe AR            < 300 msec
Mild                            30-40 mmHg
Moderate                    40-70 mmHg
Severe                        > 70 mmHg (Mean PAP > 40 mmHg)
Aortic Regurgitation DT dP/dt
Mild AR                < 2.0 m/sec
Moderate AR        2.0-3.5 m/sec
Severe AR             > 3.5 m/sec
Normal                    >1200 mmHg/s (< 27 msec)
Boarderline              1000-1200 mmHg/s (27-32 msec)
Abnormal                < 1000 mmHg/s (> 32 msec)
AR Jet Diameter/LVOT Ratio Index of Myocardial Performance
Mild AR                    < 25 - 45 %
Moderate AR              45 - 65%
Severe AR               > 65%
Normal                            < 0.40
Mildly Depressed             0.40-0.60
Moderately Depressed     0.60-1.00
Severely Depressed          > 1.00
Aortic Regurgitant Fraction  
Normal to Trivial        <20%
Mild                            20-30%
Moderate                   30-55%
Severe                       > 55% (> 60 mls)
Aortic Regurgitation Vena Contracta  
Mild AR                    < 0.3 cm
Moderate AR            0.3 - 0.6 cm
Severe AR                > 0.6 cm
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