ACC/AHA Level of Evidence Classification and Recommendations
Conditions for which there is evidence for and/or general agreement that the procedure or treatment is benficial, useful, and effective
Conditions for which there is conflicting evidence and/or divergence of opionion about the usefulness/efficacy of a procedure or treatment
Weight of evidence/opinion is in favor of usefulness/efficacy
Usefulness/efficacy is less well established by evidence/opinion
Conditions for which there is evidence and/or general agreement that the procedure/treatment is not useful/effective and in some cases may be harmful
Level of Evidence Classification
Level of Evidence A
Data derived from multiple randomized clinical trials.
Level of Evidence B
Data derived from a single randomized trial or nonrandomized trial.
Level of Evidence C
Only consensus opinion of experts, case studies, or standard-of-care.
New York Association (NYHA) Functional Classification
This scale assists in the determination of functional ability in
patients with cardiac disease.
Patients with cardiac disease, but without resulting limitation of
physical activity. Ordinary physical activity does not cause undue
fatigue, palpitation, dyspnea, or anginal pain.
Patients with cardiac disease resulting in slight limitation of
physical activity. They are comfortable at rest. Ordinary physical
activity results in fatigue, palpitation, dyspnea or anginal pain.
Patients with marked limitation of physical activity. They are
comfortable at rest. Less than ordinary activity causes fatigue,
palpitation, dyspnea, or anginal pain.
Patients with cardiac disease resulting in inability to carry on
any physical activity without discomfort. Symptoms of heart failure
or of the anginal syndrome may be present even at rest. If any
physical activity is undertaken, discomfort is increased.
This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education through the joint providership of University of Nebraska Medical Center, Center for Continuing Education and JLS Interactive, LLC.
The University of Nebraska Medical Center, Center for Continuing Education is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
This activity is approved by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT) as sonography-related continuing education (CE). Credit(s) issued for successful completion of ASRT-approved CE activities are accepted by the American Registry of Diagnostic Medical Sonography, American Registry of Radiological Technologists, Cardiovascular Credentialing International and Canadian Association of Registered Diagnostic Ultrasound Professionals. Contact the applicable registry for additional information / restrictions on their acceptance of ASRT CE credit.