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ID Journal Abstract
#1: STCVS
The structure and function of the helical heart and its buttress wrapping. III. The electric spiral of the heart: The hypothesis of the anisotropic conducting matrix.
Title: The structure and function of the helical heart and its buttress wrapping. III. The electric spiral of the heart: The hypothesis of the anisotropic conducting matrix.
Authors: Coghlan HC, Coghlan AR, Buckberg GD, Gharib M, Cox JL.
Citation: Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2001 Oct;13(4):333-41.
Abstract: The study of the dissemination of the electric impulse throughout the ventricular myocardium, which gave rise to the current theories, was performed without taking into consideration the complex architecture of the cardiac muscle elucidated by more recent researchers. We propose a novel hypothesis based on the special macroscopic structure of the heart, the anisotropic electric and mechanical behavior of the myocardium, the characteristics of the intercellular matrix and its very special collagen scaffolding, chemical composition, and biochemistry. The unique properties of the intercellular matrix would make it especially suited to function, in conjunction with the specialized conducting system (His-Purkinje system), as an efficient anisotropic conductor for the spread of electric activation in the heart, and to allow an optimal sequence of excitation-contraction coupling that results in the coordination of effective myocardial contraction in birds and mammals of the most varied known heart rates. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company
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#2: STCVS
The structure and function of the helical heart and its buttress wrapping. II. Interface between unfolded myocardial band and evolution of primitive heart.
Title: The structure and function of the helical heart and its buttress wrapping. II. Interface between unfolded myocardial band and evolution of primitive heart.
Authors: Buckberg GD.
Citation: Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2001 Oct;13(4):320-32.
Abstract: The unfolded myocardial band containing a central fold, extending between the pulmonary artery and aorta, has been used to explain the intact or wrapped cardiac structure, composed of a basal and apical loop forming a buttress and helix, connected to the outflow vessels of both ventricles. The interface between this simple structure, and embryologic development of the primitive heart evolving from a singular tube, into a dual pumping chamber with separate left and right sides, must be explained. The objective is to suggest that a simple and integrated triple figure-eight spiral band, with three S-shaped helixes and their apices may correlate the conventional embryologic development of the primitive heart (bulbus cordis, ventricle, and arterial outflow vessels), with the three stages of spatial orientation of the myocardial band (basal and apical loops), which extends between dual ventricular outflow vessels, in the sequence defined by the unwrapped myocardial band. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company
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#3: STCVS
The structure and function of the helical heart and its buttress wrapping. I. The normal macroscopic structure of the heart.
Title: The structure and function of the helical heart and its buttress wrapping. I. The normal macroscopic structure of the heart.
Authors: Torrent-Guasp F, Buckberg GD, Clemente C, Cox JL, Coghlan HC, Gharib M.
Citation: Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2001 Oct;13(4):301-19.
Abstract: The Gordian knot of anatomy has been the architectural arrangement of ventricular muscle mass, which may have finally become understood. The description of Francisco Torrent-Guasp's model of the helical heart is presented, which includes the cardiac structures that produce 2 simple loops that start at the pulmonary artery and end in the aorta. An unscrolled ventricular band is shown, achieved by blunt dissection that extends between the points of origin of the right ventricle, at the pulmonary artery root, to termination at the aortic root, in the left ventricle. These components include a spiral horizontal basal loop that surrounds the right and left ventricular cavities, and changes direction to cause a second spiral, produced by almost vertically oriented fibers, giving rise to the helical configuration of the ventricular myocardial band. These anatomic structures are successively activated, as with a peristaltic wave, starting at the right ventricle (just below the pulmonary artery) and progressing toward the aorta to produce a sequence of narrowing, caused by the basal loop contraction, shortening (related predominantly to the descendant segment contraction), lengthening (produced by the ascendant segment contraction), and widening, as a consequence of several factors that act during ventricular myocardium relaxation. These sequences control the ventricular events responsible for ejection to empty and suction to fill. These mechanical interactions of structure and function are defined in relation to chronologic location of the successive cardiac functional events in the aortic, left ventricular, and left atrial recordings. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company
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